byexample

Write snippets of code in your documentation and execute them as regression tests.

View project on GitHub

Usage

Imagine that you are creating a 101 Python tutorial and you want to explain the basics of the language writing a blog.

So you open your favorite editor, write some comments, you enhance them with real Python examples and you get something like this:

$ cat test/ds/python-tutorial.v1.md               # byexample: +rm= 
This is a 101 Python tutorial
The following is an example written in Python about arithmetics
 
     ```
     >>> from __future__ import print_function
     >>> 1 + 2
     3
     ```
 
The next examples show you about complex numbers in Python
 
     ```
     >>> 2j * 2
     4
 
     >>> 2j + 4j
     6
     ```

Now we want to be sure that the examples in the blog are correct.

Just run byexample selecting python as the language target

$ byexample -l python test/ds/python-tutorial.v1.md
<...>
Failed example:
    2j * 2
Expected:
4
Got:
4j
<...>
File test/ds/python-tutorial.v1.md, 4/4 test ran in <...> seconds
[FAIL] Pass: 2 Fail: 2 Skip: 0

byexample will show the differences for each failing test and at the end will print a summary showing how many examples were executed, how many passed, failed or where skipped.

In normal circumstances there are two possible status: PASS and FAIL.

If something strange happen like the user pressed ctrl-c, the underlying runner crashed or an example couldn’t get parsed, the status will be ABORT.

For quick regression you may want to stop byexample at the first failing example using --ff or --fail-fast to skip all the remaining examples.

$ byexample --ff -l python test/ds/python-tutorial.v1.md
<...>
File test/ds/python-tutorial.v1.md, 4/4 test ran in <...> seconds
[FAIL] Pass: 2 Fail: 1 Skip: 1

Fix the bugs an re-run

$ byexample --ff -l python test/ds/python-tutorial.v2.md
<...>
File test/ds/python-tutorial.v2.md, 4/4 test ran in <...> seconds
[PASS] Pass: 4 Fail: 0 Skip: 0

Help included

The help included in byexample should give you a quick overview of its capabilities

$ byexample -h                                # byexample: +norm-ws -tags +rm=  +diff=ndiff
usage: byexample -l <languages> [--ff] [--timeout <secs>] [-j <n>] [--dry]
                 [--skip <file> [<file> ...]] [--capture-env-var <var names>]
                 [-d {none,unified,ndiff,context,tool}] [--difftool <cmd>]
                 [--no-enhance-diff] [-o <options>] [--show-options]
                 [-m <dir>] [--encoding <enc>[:<error>]] [--show-failures <n>]
                 [--pretty {none,all}] [--no-progress-bar] [-V] [-v | -q]
                 [-h | -xh]
 
Write snippets of code in C++, Python, Ruby, and others as documentation and
execute them as regression tests.
 
positional arguments:
  <file>                files that have the examples to run.
 
Language Selection:
  -l <languages>, --language <languages>, --languages <languages>
                        select which languages to parse and run. Comma
                        separated syntax is also accepted.
 
Execution Options:
  --ff, --fail-fast     if an example fails, fail and stop all the execution.
  --timeout <secs>      timeout in seconds to complete each example (2 by
                        default); this can be changed per example with this
                        option.
  -j <n>, --jobs <n>    run <n> jobs in parallel (1 by default); <n> can be an
                        integer or the string "cpu" or "cpu<n>": "cpu" means
                        use all the cpus available; "cpu<n>" multiply it by
                        <n> the cpus available.
  --dry                 do not run any example, only parse them.
  --skip <file> [<file> ...]
                        skip these files
  --capture-env-var <var names>, --capture-env-vars <var names>
                        capture some environment variables and put them in the
                        clipboard so they can be pasted and used in
                        conditional executions. Comma separated syntax is also
                        accepted.
 
Diff Options:
  -d {none,unified,ndiff,context,tool}, --diff {none,unified,ndiff,context,tool}
                        select diff algorithm (none by default).
  --difftool <cmd>      command line to the external diff program; the tokens
                        %e and %g are replaced by the file names with the
                        expected and the got outputs to compare. Enabled only
                        if "--diff tool".
  --no-enhance-diff     by default, improves are made so the diff are easier
                        to to understand: non-printable characters are
                        visible; captured string shown, and more; this flag
                        disables all of that.
 
Miscellaneous Options:
  -o <options>, --options <options>
                        add additional options; see --show-options to list
                        them.
  --show-options        show the available options for the selected languages
                        (with -l)
  -m <dir>, --modules <dir>
                        append a directory for searching modules there.
  --encoding <enc>[:<error>]
                        select the encoding and optionally the error handler
                        (default: utf-8:strict); valid error handlers are
                        "strict", "ignore" and "replace".
  --show-failures <n>   show up to <n> failures per file (all by default) and
                        suppress the rest (the execution of the examples is
                        not stopped, only the failures are not shown)
  --pretty {none,all}   control how to pretty print the output.
  --no-progress-bar     do not show the progress bar.
  -V, --version         show byexample's version and license, then exit
 
Logging:
  -v                    verbosity level, add more flags to increase the level.
  -q, --quiet           quiet mode, do not print anything even if an example
                        fails; suppress the progress output.
 
Help Options:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -xh                   show this help message plus the one for the advanced
                        options and exit
 
Examples:
  byexample -l python file.py
  byexample -l python,ruby --ff --timeout=8 file.md
  byexample -l python,ruby --show-options
 
See https://byexamples.github.io for the full documentation
and more examples.